This manual is for an old version of Hazelcast Jet, use the latest stable version.

AggregateOperation is a holder of five functional primitives Jet uses to evaluate an aggregate function over a set of data items:

  • create a new accumulator object.
  • accumulate the data of an item by mutating the accumulator's state.
  • combine the contents of the right-hand accumulator into the left-hand one.
  • deduct the contents of the right-hand accumulator from the left-hand one (undo the effects of combine).
  • finish accumulation by transforming the accumulator object into the final result.

If you are familiar with, you may get a déjà vu here: except for some naming differences, AggregateOperation is a very similar object. The devil is in the detail, however, and these primitives are tailor-made for Jet's aggregation style. We assume that both accumulation and combining are destructive operations, mutating the left-hand operand. Mutability means lower GC pressure and we always use it in our implementations. We also define the deduct primitive, absent from Collector and specifically targetted at the optimization of sliding window aggregation.

As a simple example we can define an aggregate operation that collects items to a set:


of() is a factory method that takes the primitives in the order we gave above. Let's have a brief look at this definition. Our accumulator object is a HashSet instance. We accumulate an item with add(); we combine it with another accumulator with addAll(); we undo this operation with removeAll(). Our final output is a string representation of the set.

This example was easy and familiar because Set is a mutable abstraction so the fit is natural. It gets less natural when your accumulated value is something the JDK doesn't provide in mutable form. If you want to accumulate a long value, you'll need a mutable container object for it. We do provide convenience that will create an AggregateOperation from immutable reduction primitives, so you could use that:

        (Long x) -> x,
        (sum1, sum2) -> sum1 + sum2,
        (sum1, sum2) -> sum1 - sum2

Under the hood Jet will instantiate a mutable holder that keeps a reference to the immutable objects returned from the user-supplied primitives. reducing() takes these arguments:

  1. the "empty" accumulated value
  2. the function that takes a stream item and computes its accumulated value
  3. the combine primitive
  4. the deduct primitive

Note that combine and deduct here are pure functions acting on immutable arguments and have appropriately different lambda shapes than those in AggregateOperation.

While simple, the above definition of summing will create a lot of garbage Long objects. Jet's own summing operation looks like this:

return AggregateOperation.of(
        (a, item) -> a.addExact(mapToLongF.applyAsLong(item)),

Instead of one immutable Long per input item we create just a single LongAccumulator instance for the whole operation. There's no intermediate step of first computing the accumulated value of an item and then combining it with the running state (this would force us to create an object); here the accumulate primitive takes the whole item and works it out internally how to update the accumulator. LongAccumulator declares methods for "exact" addition/subtraction (result is checked for integer overflow) and we use them here, preferring fail-fast behavior to emitting incorrect results.